Second EEAS Report on Foreign Information Manipulation and Interference Threats
January 24, 2024

Second EEAS Report on Foreign Information Manipulation and Interference Threats


The Second Report on Foreign Information Manipulation and Interference (FIMI) Threats, developed by the European External Actions Service (EEAS), builds on the first report and completes the work towards a common framework for networked defence against FIMI. This Response Framework proposes to link analysis even more effectively to timely responses, highlighting the importance of cooperation between all stakeholders.

The insights of this report are based on 750 investigated FIMI incidents between 1 December 2022 and 30 November 2023.

A case study applies the Response Framework to FIMI incidents investigated in past elections in the EU and beyond, which can be further applied by the community of experts during the multiple elections taking place in 2024.

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